QUESTION #1: Please define justice from a legal and constitutional perspective.
Justice comes from a Roman goddess, she was a Roman goddess. She had a sword and the sword typically with the Roman goddess is pointed downward. The sword is pointed downward because the Roman goddess of justice does inflict punishment. But the sword is specifically pointed downward because there is a quality of mercy also in her dispensation of justice. She has a scale in her hands, and this is where the arguments are weighed, for and against a particular person or for or against a particular lawsuit. She wears a toga, the goddess of justice wears a toga because that is supposed to put her in the philosophical class of people, the educated class of people where she is an intellectual, she is supposed to be using good sound logic and reasoning in the administration of justice. Initially she was not blindfolded.
That didn’t start until around the 16th century, when they started putting blindfolds on Lady Justice, but the blindfold of course, is very important because it does indicate that regardless of whether you’re poor, or regardless of whether you’re rich, regardless of what color you are, regardless of how pretty you are or how educated or how uneducated you are, justice is blind. It’s the same decision, it should be the same decision reached regardless of who you are period. Everybody gets treated the same way. So the concept of equality really plays a heavy role in the proper administration of justice. Of course, this is where Biblical law really takes a big step forward, because in the ancient world, justice was anything but equal.
The law of Moses made people equal, but in the old law before the time of Moses, there was different standards for different groups of people and justice was a privilege one group over another. But Moses changed all that.